Products   Heater modules

Heater modules

A cost-effective solution to sample heating whilst benefiting from proven cutting-edge heater technology. They comprise CVD processed heating elements packaged in refractory metal cases.
In addition to the complete sample heating solutions offered in the EpiCentre section (page 148) UHV Design also offers a range of individual heater modules for end users to incorporate into their own heater stage designs. The range provides end users with a cost-effective solution to sample heating, whilst benefiting from a proven heater technology used in market leading stages. 
Heater Module Overview 
UHV Design heater modules are used in vacuum applications for radiantly heating semiconductor wafers, holder supported samples or various other substrates to high temperatures. The modules feature CVD processed heating elements packaged in refractory metal cases.
The immediate hot zone holding the element is constructed from refractory metals such as Molybdenum, Tantalum and ceramics and does not include any other materials to compromise performance at high temperature. These modules are therefore particularly suitable for ultra-high vacuum applications. 
Thermocouples
Heater modules are available with type ‘C’ or ‘K’ thermocouples and can be supplied with semiconductor grade quartz guards to protect the heater element from mechanical damage, i.e. accidental contact with the sample transfer tool. Type C (Tungsten/Rhenium) thermocouples are provided as standard. For applications in which the use of Tungsten or Rhenium would be undesirable, a type K (Chromel/Alumel) thermocouple can be supplied.

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Key features

  • High uniformity heating to 1200°C

  • Elements with large radiating surface to gap ratio – able to run at lower temperatures than conventional metal heaters

  • Refractory metal hot zone – uncompromised performance at high temperatures

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Choosing the right element

Until recently, graphite heaters have been used in the majority of deposition stages and are still the mainstay providing robust performance in UHV applications such as MBE. However, graphite heaters oxidise and are consumed when run in the presence of high partial pressures of O2 at high temperature.
For sputtering applications which involve high partial pressures of O2, other technologies are also available with superior performance.

SiCg Elements

Solid Silicon Carbide coated Graphite elements provide improved durability when using oxidising atmospheres by comparison with PgG. Being an insulating form of SiC, holes are required in the coating to make electrical connection and the underlying Graphite is exposed and vulnerable to oxidation at these locations.

sSiC Elements

Solid Silicon Carbide elements (see Figure 1) are manufactured from a conducting solid SiC material in the ß phase and are more robust in all respects. They are durable to mechanical or electrical shocking, reactive gas/oxidation immunity at temperature. They are also optimised to give the very best in temperature uniformity. By virtue of the large radiating surface to gap ratio, all these elements run at considerably lower temperatures than often used metal wire heaters which ensures heater longevity. The typical ratio of heated element surface to meander gap is >5:1 resulting in excellent substrate heating uniformity, even without rotation.

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CADENAS models may differ from the latest product specification, please check with us prior to placing a purchase order.

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Quick Reference Guide: Typical Standard Heater Element Resistance

Element Material Sample Size  Cold Resistance
Ω (20°C)
Hot Resistance
Ω (1,000°C)
Electrical Characteristics at 1,000°C
        Watts AMPS VOLTS
SiC Coated Graphite 2" 1.4 1.2 840 26.5 31.7
  3" 1.7 1.1 1150 32.3 35.6
  90mm (EC282) 2.9 1.9 850 21.2 40.2
  100mm 1.6 1 1500 38.7 38.7
  150mm 1.8 1.3 2500 43.9 57
  200mm 2.2 1.45 3600 49.8 72.2
Solid SiC 1" 9.5 3.0 400 8.5 46.9
  2" 10 3.0 840 12.1 69.2
  3" 10 3.0 1150 14.2 81
  90mm (EC282) 12 4.0 850 11 77.1
  100mm 12 4.0 1500 14.6 102.5
  150mm 12 4.0 2500 18.9 132.3